The Effect of Hidden Female Smoking on the Association between Smoking and Asthma.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2018 May 22;:1-10
Authors: Kim CH, Lee JS
BACKGROUND: The association between smoking and asthma remains controversial. In our previous study, we were not able to show an association between asthma and smoking in Korean adults. One Korean study demonstrated underreporting of smoking history by female adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hidden female smoking on the association between asthma and smoking in Korean adults.
METHODS: Data were acquired from 23,483 men and women aged ≥19 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES).
RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma was 1.5%, the self-reported smoking prevalence was 32.4%, and the cotinine-verified smoking prevalence was 30.3%. Of the male cotinine-verified smokers, 6.4% were self-reported nonsmokers (2.7% never smokers and 3.7% ex-smokers), whereas 48.8% of the female cotinine-verified smokers were self-reported nonsmokers (43.2% never smokers and 5.6% ex-smokers). In males, the adjusted odds ratio of the association between smoking and asthma was 0.738 (confidence interval, CI: 0.393-1.173) in self-reported and 0.767 (CI: 0.515-1.143) in cotinine-verified smoking; in females, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.945 (CI: 1.348-2.805) in self-reported and 1.531 (CI: 1.076-2.179) in cotinine-verified smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed smoking was associated with asthma in females but not in males.
PMID: 29788017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Protective effect of breastfeeding on recurrent cough in adulthood.
Thorax. 2018 May 21;:
Authors: Gerhart KD, Stern DA, Guerra S, Morgan WJ, Martinez FD, Wright AL
RATIONALE: Breastfeeding protects from respiratory infections in early life but its relationship to recurrent cough and other respiratory outcomes in adult life is not well established.
METHODS: Infant feeding practices were assessed prospectively in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study, a non-selected birth cohort and categorised into formula from birth or introduced <1 month, formula introduced ≥1 to <4 months and exclusive breastfeeding for ≥4 months. Infant feeding was assessed as an ordinal variable representing an increasing dose of breastmilk across the three categories. Recurrent cough was defined at 22, 26 and 32 years as ≥2 episodes of cough without a cold lasting 1 week during the past year. Covariates included participant sex, race/ethnicity and smoking as well as parental smoking, education, age and asthma. Covariates were evaluated as potential confounders for the relation between infant feeding and adult outcomes.
RESULTS: Of the 786 participants, 19% breastfed <1 month, 50% breastfed ≥1 to <4 months and 31% breastfed ≥4 months. The prevalence of recurrent cough at 22, 26 and 32 years was 17%, 15% and 16%, respectively. Each ordinal increase in breastfeeding duration was associated with a decreased risk of recurrent cough in adult life: adjusted OR=0.71, (95% CI: 0.56 to 0.89), p=0.004. Additional adjustment for concurrent adult asthma, wheeze, smoking and lung volume did not change these results.
CONCLUSION: Longer duration of breastfeeding reduces the risk of recurrent cough in adult life, regardless of smoking and other respiratory symptoms, suggesting long-term protective effects on respiratory health.
PMID: 29786547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Job titles classified into socioeconomic and occupational groups identify subjects with increased risk for respiratory symptoms independent of occupational exposure to vapour, gas, dust, or fumes.
Eur Clin Respir J. 2018;5(1):1468715
Authors: Schyllert C, Andersson M, Hedman L, Ekström M, Backman H, Lindberg A, Rönmark E
Objectives: To evaluate the ability of three different job title classification systems to identify subjects at risk for respiratory symptoms and asthma by also taking the effect of exposure to vapours, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) into account. Background: Respiratory symptoms and asthma may be caused by occupational factors. There are different ways to classify occupational exposure. In this study, self-reported occupational exposure to vapours, gas, dust and fumes was used as well as job titles classifed into occupational and socioeconomic Groups according to three different systems. Design: This was a large population-based study of adults aged 30-69 years in Northern Sweden (n = 9,992, 50% women). Information on job titles, VGDF-exposure, smoking habits, asthma and respiratory symptoms was collected by a postal survey. Job titles were used for classification into socioeconomic and occupational groups based on three classification systems; Socioeconomic classification (SEI), the Nordic Occupations Classification 1983 (NYK), and the Swedish Standard Classification of Occupations 2012 (SSYK). Associations were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Occupational exposure to VGDF was a risk factor for all respiratory symptoms and asthma (odds ratios (ORs) 1.3-2.4). Productive cough was associated with the socioeconomic groups of manual workers (ORs 1.5-2.1) and non-manual employees (ORs 1.6-1.9). These groups include occupations such as construction and transportation workers, service workers, nurses, teachers and administration clerks which by the SSYK classification were associated with productive cough (ORs 2.4-3.7). Recurrent wheeze was significantly associated with the SEI group manual workers (ORs 1.5-1.7). After adjustment for also VGDF, productive cough remained significantly associated with the SEI groups manual workers in service and non-manual employees, and the SSYK-occupational groups administration, service, and elementary occupations. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, two of the three different classification systems, SSYK and SEI gave similar results and identified groups with increased risk for respiratory symptoms while NYK did not give conclusive results. Furthermore, several associations were independent of exposure to VGDF indicating that also other job-related factors than VGDF are of importance.
PMID: 29785256 [PubMed]
Feasibility of high-intensity training in asthma.
Eur Clin Respir J. 2018;5(1):1468714
Authors: Toennesen LL, Soerensen ED, Hostrup M, Porsbjerg C, Bangsbo J, Backer V
Background: High-intensity interval training is an effective and popular training regime but its feasibility in untrained adults with asthma is insufficiently described. Objective: The randomized controlled trial 'EFFORT Asthma' explored the effects of behavioural interventions including high-intensity interval training on clinical outcomes in nonobese sedentary adults with asthma. In this article we present a sub analysis of data aiming to evaluate if patients' pre-intervention levels of asthma control, FEV1, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) predicted their training response to the high-intensity interval training program, measured as increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Design: We used data from the EFFORT Asthma Study. Of the 36 patients randomized to the 8-week exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity training three times per week, 29 patients (45% females) completed the study and were included in this data analysis. Pre-intervention assessment included the asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and AHR to mannitol. VO2 max was measured during an incremental cycle test. Results: The majority of included patients had partly or uncontrolled asthma reflected by a mean (SD) ACQ at 1.7 (0.6). Median (IQR) FeNO was 28.5 (23.8) ppb and 75% had a positive mannitol test indicating AHR. The association between patients' training response measured as increase in VO2max and pre-intervention ACQ scores was not statistically significant (p = 0.49). Likewise, the association between patients' increase in VO2max and FeNO as well as AHR was not statistically significant (p = 0.80 and p = 0.58). Conclusions: Included asthma patients could adhere to the high-intensity interval protocol and improve their VO2max regardless of pre-intervention levels of asthma control, airway inflammation and AHR.
PMID: 29785255 [PubMed]
Intergenerational Associations of Parent Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health Outcomes.
Pediatrics. 2018 May 21;:
Authors: Lê-Scherban F, Wang X, Boyle-Steed KH, Pachter LM
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) robustly predict future morbidity and mortality. Researchers are just beginning to investigate intergenerational effects. We hypothesize there are intergenerational associations between parent ACE exposure and worse child health, health behaviors, and health care access and use.
METHODS: We linked data from 2 population-based cross-sectional telephone surveys in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that were used to ask parents about their past exposure to ACEs and their child's health, respectively. Participants were 350 parent-child dyads. Logistic regression models adjusted for parent and child characteristics. Parent ACE score was used to summarize indicators of parents' childhood adversity. Child health outcomes were poor overall health status, asthma diagnosis, obesity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, any soda consumption, inadequate physical activity, excessive television watching, no health insurance, no usual source of health care, and no dental examination in past 12 months.
RESULTS: Of adult participants, 80% were female participants and 45% were non-Latino African American. Eighty-five percent of parents had experienced ≥1 ACE and 18% had experienced ≥6 ACEs. In adjusted models, each additional parent ACE was associated with higher odds of poor child overall health status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.32), asthma (OR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.05-1.30), and excessive television watching (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.05-1.28).
CONCLUSIONS: The full scope of the health effects of ACEs may not be limited to the exposed individual, highlighting the need for a 2-generation approach to addressing the social determinants of child health.
PMID: 29784755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]