Hospitalisation in short-stay units for adults with internal medicine diseases and conditions.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 13;8:CD012370
Authors: Strøm C, Stefansson JS, Fabritius ML, Rasmussen LS, Schmidt TA, Jakobsen JC
BACKGROUND: Short-stay units are hospital units that provide short-term care for selected patients. Studies have indicated that short-stay units might reduce admission rates, time of hospital stays, hospital readmissions and expenditure without compromising the quality of care. Short-stay units are often defined by a target patient category, a target function, and a target time frame. Hypothetically, short-stay units could be established as part of any department, but this review focuses on short-stay units that provide care for participants with internal medicine diseases and conditions.
OBJECTIVES: To assess beneficial and harmful effects of short-stay unit hospitalisation compared with usual care in people with internal medicine diseases and conditions.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases and two trials registers up to 13 December 2017 together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. We also searched several grey literature sources and performed a forward citation search for included studies.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials and cluster-randomised trials, comparing hospitalisation in a short-stay unit with usual care (hospitalisation in a traditional hospital ward or other services). We defined a short-stay unit to be a hospital ward where the targeted length of stay in hospital for patients was five days or less. We included both multipurpose and specialised short-stay units. Participants were adults admitted to hospital with an internal medicine disease or condition. We excluded surgical, obstetric, psychiatric, gynaecological, and ambulatory participants. Trials were included irrespective of publication status, date, and language.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each included trial. We measured intervention effect sizes by meta-analyses for two primary outcomes, mortality and serious adverse events, and one secondary outcome, hospital readmission. We narratively reported the following important outcomes: quality of life, activities of daily living, non-serious adverse events, and costs. We used risk ratio differences of 15% for mortality and of 20% for serious adverse events for minimal relevant clinical consideration. We rated the certainty of the evidence and the strength of recommendations of the outcomes using the GRADE approach.
MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 records reporting on 14 randomised trials with a total of 2872 participants. One trial was ongoing. Thirteen trials evaluated short-stay unit hospitalisation for six specific conditions (acute decompensated heart failure (one trial), asthma (one trial), atrial fibrillation (one trial), chest pain (seven trials), syncope (two trials), and transient ischaemic attack (one trial)) and one trial investigated participants presenting with miscellaneous internal medicine disease and conditions. The components of the intervention differed among the trials as dictated by the trial participants' condition. All included trials were at high risk of bias.The certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was very low. Consequently, it is uncertain whether hospitalisation in short-stay units compared with usual care reduces mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.15) 5 trials (seven additional trials reporting on 1299 participants reported no deaths in either group)); serious adverse events (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.54; 7 trials (one additional trial with 108 participants reported no serious adverse events in either group)), and hospital readmission (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.19, 8 trials (one additional trial with 424 participants did not report results for participants)). There was not enough information to confirm or refute that short-stay unit hospitalisation had relevant effects on quality of life, activities of daily living, non-serious adverse events, and costs.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the quantity and the certainty of the evidence was very low. Consequently, it is uncertain whether there are any beneficial or harmful effects of short-stay unit hospitalisation for adults with internal medicine diseases and conditions - more trials comparing the effects of short-stay units with usual care are needed. Such trials ought to be conducted with low risk of bias and low risks of random errors to improve the overall confidence in the evidence.
PMID: 30102428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ABO histo-blood group and risk of respiratory atopy in children: a review of published evidence.
Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2018;9:73-79
Authors: Uwaezuoke SN, Eze JN, Ayuk AC, Ndu IK
Besides their fundamental role in transfusion medicine, ABO and other histo-blood group antigens are associated with the pathogenesis of some human diseases such as malignancy and thrombosis. Reports also show a possible relationship with the risk of asthma and other forms of respiratory atopy. This paper aims to critically review the current evidence linking ABO histo-blood group with the risk of respiratory atopy in children and adults. A literature search was conducted with PubMed to gather baseline data about this relationship. The search extended to studies published within the past 45 years. First, the molecular mechanism underpinning the role of ABO antigenic system in human diseases comprises a fascinating relationship with von Willebrand factor and several pro-inflammatory and adhesion molecules. Second, specific blood group types vary with asthma phenotypes; severe asthma is associated with B phenotype, while mild and moderate asthma is associated with O and A phenotypes. Third, O phenotype has been linked to allergic rhinitis but only in males. Furthermore, asthma risk is related to O/Lewis negative/secretor phenotypes, while a significant relationship has also been established with B phenotype but not with A and O phenotypes. However, one study failed to establish a significant relationship with any of the ABO blood group antigens. In conclusion, there is no unanimity on the specific histo-blood groups linked to respiratory atopy risk, although asthma phenotypes are associated with specific blood groups. Despite the prospect that this relationship holds for the use of blood-group typing in evaluating respiratory atopy risk in children, more evidence-based studies are still required for its validation.
PMID: 30102298 [PubMed]
Particles in exhaled air (PExA): non-invasive phenotyping of small airways disease in adult asthma.
J Breath Res. 2018 Aug 13;:
Authors: Soares M, Mirgorodskaya E, Koca H, Viklund E, Richardson M, Gustafsson PM, Olin AC, Siddiqui S
RATIONALE: Asthma is often characterised by inflammation, damage and dysfunction of the small airways, but no standardised biomarkers are available. Objectives: Using a novel approach -Particles in Exhaled Air (PExA)- we sought to a) sample and analyse abundant protein biomarkers: surfactant protein A (SPA) and albumin in adult asthmatic and healthy patients and b) relate protein concentrations with physiological markers using phenotyping. Methods: 83 adult asthmatics and 21 healthy volunteers were recruited from a discovery cohort in Leicester, UK, and 32 adult asthmatics as replication cohort from Sweden. Markers of airways closure/small airways dysfunction were evaluated using forced vital capacity (FVC), impulse oscillometry (IOS) and multiple breath washout. SPA/albumin from PEx (PExA sample) were analysed using ELISA and corrected for acquired particle mass. Topological data analysis (TDA) was applied to small airway physiology and PExA protein data to identify phenotypes.
RESULTS: PExA manoeuvres were feasible, including severe asthmatic subjects. TDA identified a clinically important phenotype of asthmatic patients with multiple physiological markers of peripheral airway dysfunction, and significantly lower levels of both SPA and albumin. Conclusion: We report that the PExA method is feasible across the spectrum of asthma severity and could be used to identify small airway disease phenotypes.
PMID: 30102246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Co-existence of vocal cord dysfunction with pulmonary conditions other than asthma: A case series.
Respir Med Case Rep. 2018;25:104-108
Authors: Fajt ML, Birnie KM, Trejo Bittar HE, Petrov AA
Background: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is defined as inappropriate movement of the vocal cords resulting in functional airway obstruction and symptoms including cough, wheezing, and dyspnea. VCD is often misdiagnosed with asthma but can also co-exist with asthma. The association of VCD with other serious pulmonary conditions has not been described to date.
Case reports: We describe the first case series of two adult patients evaluated at a university asthma clinic who in addition to having VCD also had significant pulmonary pathology other than asthma. Patient 1 had VCD and pulmonary veno-occulsive disease which necessitated a lung transplant. Patient 2 had VCD and a patent ductus arteriosis who necessitated surgical closure.
Conclusion: It is important to recognize that VCD can exist with pulmonary conditions other than asthma. Lack of improvement in respiratory symptoms after appropriate treatment for VCD should alert the clinician to evaluate for additional conditions.
PMID: 30101057 [PubMed]
Obesity-associated severe asthma in an adult Japanese population.
Respir Investig. 2018 Aug 09;:
Authors: To M, Hitani A, Kono Y, Honda N, Kano I, Haruki K, To Y
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is increasingly being recognized as an important public health issue. Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for poor asthma control and for worsening of asthma severity. However, most studies investigating obese patients with asthma have been performed in Western countries. Reports on the characteristics of obese Japanese individuals with severe asthma are lacking. Herein, we investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with obesity-associated severe asthma in a Japanese population and the association between obesity and poor asthma control.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients with severe asthma. Patients were classified into two groups based on the definition of obesity recommended by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity: obese (OB) group (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (NOB) group (BMI <25 kg/m2). The two groups were compared. The characteristics of obesity and the metabolic functions are known to differ between males and females; therefore, we analyzed male-only and female-only cohorts separately.
RESULTS: A total of 492 patients were enrolled. Age, smoking history in terms of number of pack-years, daily controller medications use, and spirometric data were not significantly different between the OB and NOB groups in either cohort. In the female cohort, the annual exacerbation ratio and the percentage of frequent exacerbators were significantly higher in the OB group compared to the NOB group. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that obesity was independently associated with frequent asthma exacerbations in the female cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that obesity, defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, was independently associated with poor asthma control (including acute exacerbations) in adult Japanese females with severe asthma.
PMID: 30100132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]