COVID-19 among heart transplant recipients in Germany: a multicenter survey.
Clin Res Cardiol. 2020 Aug 11;:
Authors: Rivinius R, Kaya Z, Schramm R, Boeken U, Provaznik Z, Heim C, Knosalla C, Schoenrath F, Rieth A, Berchtold-Herz M, Barten MJ, Rauschning D, Mücke VT, Heyl S, Pistulli R, Grinninger C, Hagl C, Gummert JF, Warnecke G, Schulze PC, Katus HA, Kreusser MM, Raake PW
AIMS: Heart transplantation may represent a particular risk factor for severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to chronic immunosuppression and frequent comorbidities. We conducted a nation-wide survey of all heart transplant centers in Germany presenting the clinical characteristics of heart transplant recipients with COVID-19 during the first months of the pandemic in Germany.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A multicenter survey of all heart transplant centers in Germany evaluating the current status of COVID-19 among adult heart transplant recipients was performed. A total of 21 heart transplant patients with COVID-19 was reported to the transplant centers during the first months of the pandemic in Germany. Mean patient age was 58.6 ± 12.3 years and 81.0% were male. Comorbidities included arterial hypertension (71.4%), dyslipidemia (71.4%), diabetes mellitus (33.3%), chronic kidney failure requiring dialysis (28.6%) and chronic-obstructive lung disease/asthma (19.0%). Most patients received an immunosuppressive drug regimen consisting of a calcineurin inhibitor (71.4%), mycophenolate mofetil (85.7%) and steroids (71.4%). Eight of 21 patients (38.1%) displayed a severe course needing invasive mechanical ventilation. Those patients showed a high mortality (87.5%) which was associated with right ventricular dysfunction (62.5% vs. 7.7%; p = 0.014), arrhythmias (50.0% vs. none; p = 0.012), and thromboembolic events (50.0% vs. none; p = 0.012). Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T- and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide were significantly associated with the severe form of COVID-19 (p = 0.017 and p < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Severe course of COVID-19 was frequent in heart transplanted patients. High mortality was associated with right ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and markedly elevated cardiac biomarkers.
PMID: 32783099 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
COVID-19-related perceptions, context and attitudes of adults with chronic conditions: Results from a cross-sectional survey nested in the ComPaRe e-cohort.
PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237296
Authors: Tran VT, Ravaud P
BACKGROUND: To avoid a surge of demand on the healthcare system due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we must reduce transmission to individuals with chronic conditions who are at risk of severe illness with COVID-19. We aimed at understanding the perceptions, context and attitudes of individuals with chronic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic to clarify their potential risk of infection.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was nested in ComPaRe, an e-cohort of adults with chronic conditions, in France. It assessed participants' perception of their risk of severe illness with COVID-19; their context (i.e., work, household, contacts with external people); and their attitudes in situations involving frequent or occasional contacts with symptomatic or asymptomatic people. Data were collected from March 23 to April 2, 2020, during the lockdown in France. Analyses were weighted to represent the demographic characteristics of French patients with chronic conditions. The subgroup of participants at high risk according to the recommendations of the French High Council for Public Health was examined.
RESULTS: Among the 7169 recruited participants, 63% patients felt at risk because of severe illness. About one quarter (23.7%) were at risk of infection because they worked outside home, had a household member working outside home or had regular visits from external contacts. Less than 20% participants refused contact with symptomatic people and <20% used masks when in contact with asymptomatic people. Among patients considered at high risk according to the recommendations of the French High Council for Public Health, 20% did not feel at risk, which led to incautious attitudes.
CONCLUSION: Individuals with chronic conditions have distorted perceptions of their risk of severe illness with COVID-19. In addition, they are exposed to COVID-19 due to their context or attitudes.
PMID: 32760127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Room Costs for Common Pediatric Hospitalizations and Cost-Reducing Quality Initiatives.
Pediatrics. 2020 06;145(6):
Authors: Synhorst DC, Johnson MB, Bettenhausen JL, Kyler KE, Richardson TE, Mann KJ, Fieldston ES, Hall M
BACKGROUND: Improvement initiatives promote safe and efficient care for hospitalized children. However, these may be associated with limited cost savings. In this article, we sought to understand the potential financial benefit yielded by improvement initiatives by describing the inpatient allocation of costs for common pediatric diagnoses.
METHODS: This study is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pediatric patients aged 0 to 21 years from 48 children's hospitals included in the Pediatric Health Information System database from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. We included hospitalizations for 8 common inpatient pediatric diagnoses (seizure, bronchiolitis, asthma, pneumonia, acute gastroenteritis, upper respiratory tract infection, other gastrointestinal diagnoses, and skin and soft tissue infection) and categorized the distribution of hospitalization costs (room, clinical, laboratory, imaging, pharmacy, supplies, and other). We summarized our findings with mean percentages and percent of total costs and used mixed-effects models to account for disease severity and to describe hospital-level variation.
RESULTS: For 195 436 hospitalizations, room costs accounted for 52.5% to 70.3% of total hospitalization costs. We observed wide hospital-level variation in nonroom costs for the same diagnoses (25%-81% for seizure, 12%-51% for bronchiolitis, 19%-63% for asthma, 19%-62% for pneumonia, 21%-78% for acute gastroenteritis, 21%-63% for upper respiratory tract infection, 28%-69% for other gastrointestinal diagnoses, and 21%-71% for skin and soft tissue infection). However, to achieve a cost reduction equal to 10% of room costs, large, often unattainable reductions (>100%) in nonroom cost categories are needed.
CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistencies in nonroom costs for similar diagnoses suggest hospital-level treatment variation and improvement opportunities. However, individual improvement initiatives may not result in significant cost savings without specifically addressing room costs.
PMID: 32366609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Evaluation of cord blood immunoglobulin E and its association with maternal factors in a group of Iranian newborns.
J Cell Biochem. 2019 08;120(8):13658-13663
Authors: Fereidouni M, Nami FA, Serki E, Arefi M
Allergic disorders are among the most common diseases around the world especially in children. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic disorders, but early events during the pregnancy are very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of cord blood immunoglobulin E (CB-IgE) and its association with maternal in a group of Iranian newborns. In a cross-sectional study, 163 pregnant women randomly selected and information about pregnancy and atopy were taken by questionnaire. Blood samples of mothers and matched cord blood were collected and total serum IgE levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. To rolling out the possibility of contamination with maternal blood, total IgA was checked for all the cord blood samples. Sixteen percent of mothers had the history of atopic diseases and the mean IgE level was significantly higher in an atopic than nonatopic mothers (241 vs 102, P < 0.001). About 73.9% of cord blood samples, had high IgE level (>0.9 IU/mL). The level of cord blood IgE (CB-IgE) was not significantly different in male and female newborns (2.14 vs 2.15 IU/mL). There was no significant correlation between maternal factors such as age, pregnancy variables, allergens exposure, smoking, and maternal IgE with cord blood IgE. The results of this study showed that CB-IgE is high in a remarkable number of samples; independent of maternal or fetal factors. Further studies need to evaluate the reasons for the high level of IgE in cord blood in our area.
PMID: 30937964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sinus Surgery Is Associated with a Decrease in Aspirin-Induced Reaction Severity in Patients with Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019 May - Jun;7(5):1580-1588
Authors: Jerschow E, Edin ML, Chi Y, Hurst B, Abuzeid WM, Akbar NA, Gibber M, Fried MP, Han W, Pelletier T, Ren Z, Keskin T, Roizen G, Lih FB, Gruzdev A, Bradbury JA, Schuster V, Spivack S, Rosenstreich D, Zeldin DC
BACKGROUND: Nasal polyps influence the burden of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) by contributing to eicosanoid production. AERD is diagnosed through graded aspirin challenges. It is not known how sinus surgery affects aspirin challenge outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on aspirin-induced reaction severity and on the levels of eicosanoids associated with these reactions.
METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with AERD were challenged with aspirin before and 3 to 4 weeks after ESS. Respiratory parameters and plasma and urine levels of eicosanoids were compared before and after challenges.
RESULTS: Before ESS, AERD diagnosis was confirmed in all study patients by aspirin challenges that resulted in hypersensitivity reactions. After ESS, reactions to aspirin were less severe in all patients and 12 of 28 patients (43%, P < .001) had no detectable reaction. A lack of clinical reaction to aspirin was associated with lower peripheral blood eosinophilia (0.1 K/μL [interquartile range (IQR) 0.1-0.3] vs 0.4 K/μL [IQR 0.2-0.8]; P = .006), lower urinary leukotriene E4 levels after aspirin challenge (98 pg/mg creatinine [IQR 61-239] vs 459 pg/mg creatinine [IQR 141-1344]; P = .02), and lower plasma prostaglandin D2 to prostaglandin E2 ratio (0 [±0] vs 0.43 [±0.2]; P = .03), compared with those who reacted.
CONCLUSIONS: Sinus surgery results in decreased aspirin sensitivity and a decrease in several plasma and urine eicosanoid levels in patients with AERD. Diagnostic aspirin challenges should be offered to patients with suspected AERD before ESS to increase diagnostic accuracy. Patients with established AERD could undergo aspirin desensitizations after ESS as the severity of their aspirin-induced hypersensitivity reactions lessens.
PMID: 30580047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]