The Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system promotes IL-8 synthesis in a model of pediatric airway epithelium via p38 MAP kinase.
PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0183324
Authors: Dela Pena-Ponce MG, Jimenez MT, Hansen LM, Solnick JV, Miller LA
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys. Airway epithelial cell cultures were infected with wild-type or cag pathogenicity island mutant H. pylori strains, followed by evaluation of IL-8 and IL-6 protein synthesis. We found that H. pylori primarily increased IL-8 synthesis in a MOI and age-dependent fashion, with a greater than 4-fold induction in infant versus adult cultures. H. pylori-induced IL-8 synthesis in infant and juvenile cultures was significantly reduced by cag pathogenicity island mutants, indicating a requirement for the type IV secretion system. Although peptidoglycan recognition of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and NF-kappaB have been implicated as key cytokine signaling molecules for H. pylori infection in gastric epithelium, NOD1 (ML130) or NF-kappaB (JSH-23) inhibitors minimally affected IL-8 synthesis in airway epithelial cell cultures following H. pylori infection. In contrast, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway (SB203580) resulted in almost complete suppression of H. pylori-induced IL-8 synthesis. Collectively, these results indicate that H. pylori can preferentially elicit IL-8 synthesis in a model of pediatric airway epithelium using the type IV secretion system via p38 MAP kinase.
PMID: 28813514 [PubMed - in process]
Inhaled corticosteroids improve lung function, airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation but not symptom control in patients with mild intermittent asthma: A meta-analysis.
Exp Ther Med. 2017 Aug;14(2):1594-1608
Authors: Du W, Zhou L, Ni Y, Yu Y, Wu F, Shi G
It remains controversial whether inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be used in patients with intermittent asthma. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ICS compared with placebo or other therapies in patients with intermittent asthma. Medline, Embase and CNKI databases were searched up to June 2016 and a meta-analysis was conducted. The findings demonstrated that in adult patients, when compared with placebo, ICS increased forced expiratory volume in 1 sec FEV1 [standardized mean difference (SMD), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22-0.80] and alleviated airway hyper-responsiveness, which was indicated as log transformed PC20FEV1 (concentrations of methacholine when there was a fall in FEV1 ≥20%; SMD, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.14). ICS also reduced fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels [weighted mean difference (WMD), -12.57 parts per billion (ppb; a unit of NO concentration in exhaled air); 95% CI -15.88 to -9.25 ppb]. However, symptom scores did not change after ICS treatment (SMD, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.52 to 0). When compared with leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), ICS had no advantage in increasing FEV1 (WMD, 0.04 l; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.13 l), reducing sputum eosinophil percentage (WMD, -6%; 95% CI, -12.38 to 0.38%) or symptom scores (SMD, 0.44; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.9). However, in child patients, ICS significantly (P<0.05) increased the possibility of symptom control when compared with placebo [relative risk (RR), 8; 95% CI, 1.04 to 61.52] or LTRA (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.39 to 18.42). In conclusion, ICS improves lung function and alleviates airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation but cannot influence symptom scores, and has no advantage over LTRA in terms of lung function improvement and airway inflammation control in adult patients with mild intermittent asthma. However, in children, the benefit of ICS in symptom control is more significant than with LTRA.
PMID: 28810625 [PubMed]
Cost of asthma in Portuguese adults: A population-based, cost-of-illness study.
Rev Port Pneumol (2006). 2017 Aug 11;:
Authors: Barbosa JP, Ferreira-Magalhães M, Sá-Sousa A, Azevedo LF, Fonseca JA
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is one of the most frequent chronic diseases, putting a considerable economic burden on societies and individuals. We aimed to estimate the total cost of adult asthma in Portugal, as well as the extent to which direct and indirect costs are influenced by the level of asthma control.
METHODS: A nationwide, prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study using a bottom-up approach to calculate direct and indirect costs of asthma was conducted, using participant data from the Portuguese National Asthma Survey (INAsma). Direct (healthcare service usage, diagnostic tests and treatment) and indirect (absenteeism and transportation) costs were measured. Decision analytic modelling was used to perform multivariate deterministic sensitivity analysis.
RESULTS: On average, each adult costs 708.16€ (95%CI: 594.62-839.30) a year, with direct costs representing 93% (658.46€; 95%CI: 548.99-791.29) and indirect costs representing 7% (49.70€; 95%CI: 32.08-71.56). This amounts to a grand total of 386,197,211.25€ (95%CI: 324,279,674.31-457,716,500.18), with direct costs being 359,093,559.82€ (95%CI: 299,391,930.03-431,533,081.07). Asthma direct costs are 2.04% of the total Portuguese healthcare expense in 2010. The major cost domains were acute care usage (30.7%) and treatment (37.4%). Asthma control was significantly associated with higher costs throughout several domains, most notably in acute medical care.
CONCLUSIONS: Asthma in adults poses a significant economic burden on the Portuguese healthcare system, accounting for over 2% of the total healthcare expenditure in Portugal in 2010. It is important to note that a considerable portion of this burden might be eased by improving asthma control in patients, as uncontrolled patients' costs are more than double those of controlled asthma patients.
PMID: 28807558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.
Prof Case Manag. 2017 Sep/Oct;22(5):228-238
Authors: Hale R, Giese J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions.
PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING: An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs.
FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings.
IMPLICATIONS FOR CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.
PMID: 28777235 [PubMed]
Analysis of the impact of allergy and atopy on new onset of uveitis.
Acta Ophthalmol. 2017 May;95(3):e236-e241
Authors: Grajewski RS, Barahmand Pour N, Burian K, Caramoy A, Kirchhof B, Cursiefen C, Heindl LM
PURPOSE: The inappropriate immune response to harmless foreign and self-antigens is a common feature of allergy, atopy and autoimmune disease. The influence of environmental factors in the initiation of autoimmunity is not well understood. It is conceivable that immune responses to allergens may also serve as a trigger of bystander immune reactions, including autoimmunity such as uveitis. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the prevalence of allergies and atopy in patients with different types of uveitis in comparison to a control cohort.
METHODS: In total, 530 consecutive patients with new-onset anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis were compared to a non-uveitis control cohort consisting of 1.060 consecutive new-referral patients who attended our specialized outpatient clinics for other reasons than uveitis. Allergy and atopy status as well as demographic data (age, gender and ethnicity) were obtained by standardized interviewer-assisted questionnaires.
RESULTS: Uveitis case cohort and control cohort did not differ significantly in the allergy status (p = 0.910), such as the history of pollen allergy (p = 0.671), history of drug allergy (p = 0.920), history of food allergy (p = 0.941), history of house dust mite allergy (p = 0.197) or history of other allergens (p = 0.593), nor in the atopy status (p = 0.802), such as the history of atopic dermatitis (p = 0.365), history of asthma (p = 0.430) or history of allergic rhinitis (p = 0.115).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results argue against a substantial influence of allergies and atopy on the onset of uveitis.
PMID: 27682154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]