Is there a relationship between asthma and diabetes?
J Asthma. 2019 Aug 20;:1-7
Authors: Rogala B, Bożek A, Gluck J
Background: There is an ongoing discussion regarding the coexistence of bronchial asthma and diabetes. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between asthma and the diabetes course and the influence of corticosteroid therapy in asthma on diabetes control. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. There were 2431 adult patients who were selected from 40,015 patients and assigned to subgroups of patients with only asthma, with both asthma and diabetes and with only diabetes. The following parameters were measured: fasting blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The value of HbA1c in patients with asthma and diabetes was compared to the value of this parameter in patients suffering only from diabetes: 7.23 ± 1.73% versus 7.42 ± 2.09% (P > 0.05). The diabetes control criteria were met in 48.5% patients with asthma and concomitant diabetes and in 50.6% patients who suffered only from diabetes. There was a negative relationship between severe asthma and diabetes control. A daily dose of budesonide up to 825 mcg used by asthmatic and diabetic patients had no significant influence on fasting glucose. Conclusions: The effect of asthma on diabetes does not seem to be significant, except for in patients with severe asthma. Inhaled steroids administered in low or mild doses do not affect fasting glycemia.
PMID: 31429603 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Demographics and Clinical Profiles of Patients Visiting a Free Clinic in Miami, Florida.
Front Public Health. 2019;7:212
Authors: Zhang M, Garcia A, Bretones G
Background: Although the ranks of the uninsured in the United States have decreased in recent years, some states still lack Medicaid expansion programs, leaving many Americans, especially the indigent and homeless, without adequate healthcare coverage. Free-for-care clinics are oftentimes the last safety net for these vulnerable populations. Because these clinics have limited funding, a thorough understanding of the patients they serve is necessary to effectively direct their resources. The objective of the present study is to investigate the characteristics and clinical profiles of patients utilizing a free clinic in Miami, Florida. Methods: Aggregate EMR data reflecting consecutive adult patient visits to the Miami Rescue Mission Clinic in Miami, Florida between January 1st, 2018 to March 15th, 2019 (n = 846) were reviewed for sociodemographic characteristics and chronic disease prevalence. Prevalence rates were compared by sex and to county estimates from the Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results: The most common conditions were mental health (19.3%), circulatory system (14.7%), and musculoskeletal system disorders (13.9%). Males had a greater prevalence of depression (difference = 6.6%; 95% CI [1.5 to 10.7%]; χ2 = 6.2; p = 0.013) and overall mental illness (22.0 vs. 10.4%, difference = 11.6%; 95% CI [5.7 to 16.4%]; χ2 = 13.2; p = 0.0003) compared to females, and male sex was identified as an independent risk factor for mental illness on multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.8; 95% CI [1.7 to 4.7]; p < 0.001). There was also a higher prevalence of depression (difference = 6.41%; 95% CI [2.1 to 10.2%]; χ2 = 8.0; p = 0.0047) and HIV (difference = 1.4%; 95% CI [0.3 to 3.0%]; χ2 = 7.3; p = 0.007) in male patients compared to county estimates. Rates of hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, asthma, and COPD were lower in the clinic population compared to the surrounding county. Conclusion: There is an acute need for mental health services in this population. The lowered prevalence of other chronic conditions is due to underdiagnosis and loss to follow-up. Such analyses are important in guiding policy decisions for meeting the health needs of vulnerable, at risk populations.
PMID: 31428596 [PubMed]
Effects of a behaviour change intervention aimed at increasing physical activity on clinical control of adults with asthma: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2019;11:16
Authors: Freitas PD, Xavier RF, Passos NFP, Carvalho-Pinto RM, Cukier A, Martins MA, Cavalheri V, Hill K, Stelmach R, Carvalho CRF
Background: In adults with asthma, physical activity has been associated with several asthma outcomes. However, it is unclear whether changes in physical activity, measured via an accelerometer, have an effect on asthma control. The objective of the present study is, in adults with moderate-to-severe asthma, to investigate the effects of a behaviour change intervention, which aims to increase participation in physical activity, on asthma clinical control.
Methods: This is a single-blind (outcome assessor), two-arm, randomised controlled trial (RCT). Fifty-five participants with moderate-to-severe asthma, receiving optimized pharmacological treatment, will be randomly assigned (computer-generated) into either a Control Group (CG) or an Intervention Group (IG). Both groups will receive usual care (pharmacological treatment) and similar educational programmes. In addition to these, participants in the IG will undergo the behaviour change intervention based on feedback, which aims to increase participation in physical activity. This intervention will be delivered over eight sessions as weekly one-on-one, face-to-face 40-min consultations. Both before and following the completion of the intervention period, data will be collected on asthma clinical control, levels of physical activity, health-related quality of life, asthma exacerbation and levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. Anthropometric measurements will also be collected. Information on comorbidities, lung function and the use of asthma medications will be extracted from the participant's medical records.
Discussion: If successful, this study will demonstrate that, in adults with asthma, a behavioural change intervention which aims to increase participation in physical activity also affects asthma control.
Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov PRS (Protocol registration and Results System): NCT-03705702 (04/10/2018).
PMID: 31428433 [PubMed]
Regular exercise improves asthma control in adults: A randomized controlled trial.
Sci Rep. 2019 Aug 19;9(1):12088
Authors: Jaakkola JJK, Aalto SAM, Hernberg S, Kiihamäki SP, Jaakkola MS
We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a 24-week exercise intervention improves asthma control in adults. Adults with mild or moderate asthma were randomly assigned to either the exercise intervention group (IG) or the reference group (RG). Participants in IG received an individualized exercising program, including aerobic exercise at least three times a week for ≥30 minutes, muscle training, and stretching. The primary outcome was asthma control, measured by Asthma Control Test (ACT), asthma-related symptoms, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability. We estimated the risk (i.e. probability) of improvement in asthma control and the risk difference (RD) between IG and RG. Of 131 subjects (67 IG/64 RG) entered, 105 subjects (51/54) completed the trial (80%), and 89 (44/45) were analysed (68%). The ACT became better among 26 (62%) participants in IG and among 17 (39%) participants in RG. The effect of intervention on improving asthma control was 23% (RD = 0.23, 95% CI 0.027-0.438; P = 0.0320). The intervention also reduced shortness of breath by 30.1% (RD = 0.301, 95% CI 0.109-0.492; P = 0.003). The change in PEF variability was similar in both groups. Regular exercise improves asthma control measured by the ACT, while has little effect on PEF variability.
PMID: 31427628 [PubMed - in process]
Vitamin D status among adults (18-65 years old) attending primary healthcare centres in Qatar: a cross-sectional analysis of the Electronic Medical Records for the year 2017.
BMJ Open. 2019 Aug 18;9(8):e029334
Authors: Zainel AAL, Qotba H, Al Nuaimi A, Syed M
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among individuals attending primary healthcare facilities in Qatar and to assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and some medical conditions in persons aged 18-65 years old.
SETTING: The study was undertaken in publicly funded primary healthcare services in the State of Qatar.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 342 participants aged between 18 and 65 years old with a valid serum vitamin D test result during the year 2017.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum level <10 ng/mL (<25 nmol/L) was defined as severe vitamin D deficiency, a serum level of <20 ng/mL (<50 nmol/L) was defined as vitamin D deficiency and a serum level <30 ng/mL (<75 nmol/L) defined as vitamin D insufficiency.
RESULTS: The prevalence rate of severe vitamin D deficiency was 14.1% among study participants with no history of vitamin D replacement therapy in the previous months. The prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was as high as 71.4% and that of vitamin D insufficiency was up to 92.7%. None of the five chronic conditions explored in the study (diabetes, hypertension, asthma, stroke and cardiovascular disease) had an obvious association with severe vitamin D deficiency status in a bivariate analysis. However, multivariate modelling showed that (adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and nationality and each of the included chronic conditions) hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke placed an individual at a higher risk of having an associated severe vitamin D deficiency status.
CONCLUSION: Although not comprehensive and nationally representative, this study is suggestive of a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adults, females, Qatari nationality and those with higher body mass index. Multivariate modelling showed that hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and stroke were associated with a higher risk of severe vitamin D deficiency status.
PMID: 31427331 [PubMed - in process]