Deltoid muscle morphometry as an index of impaired skeletal muscularity in neonatal intensive care.
Eur J Pediatr. 2018 Jan 19;:
Authors: Dassios T, Kaltsogianni O, Krokidis M, Hickey A, Greenough A
We hypothesised that extremely premature infants would have decreased muscle mass at term-corrected age compared to term-born infants and that the degree of reduced muscle mass acquisition would correlate with the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. The MRI brain scans of infants admitted in the neonatal unit at King's College Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 1 June 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The coronal cross-sectional area of the left deltoid muscle (DCSA) was measured in 17 infants born < 28 weeks of gestation and in 20 infants born at term. The prematurely born infants had a median (IQR) gestation age of 25 weeks (24-27) and the term infants 40 weeks (38-41). The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation for the prematurely born infants was 39 days (14-62) and that for the term infants 4 days (2-5), p < 0.001. DCSA was smaller in prematurely born infants (median 189, IQR 176-223 mm2) compared to term-born infants (median 302, IQR 236-389 mm2), p < 0.001. DCSA was related to gestation age (r = 0.545, p = 0.001), weight z-score at MRI (r = 0.658, p < 0.001) and days of invasive mechanical ventilation (r = - 0.583, p < 0.001). In conclusion, extremely premature infants studied at term had a lower muscle mass compared to term-born infants.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that prolonged mechanical ventilation in infants admitted in neonatal intensive care is associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass acquisition. What is Known: • Prolonged mechanical ventilation in adult intensive care patients has been associated with skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy. • The cross-sectional area of the deltoid muscle has been used to evaluate muscle atrophy in infants with a previous branchial plexus birth injury. What is New: • Premature infants studied at term exhibit lower cross-sectional area of the deltoid muscle than their term counterparts. • Prolonged mechanical ventilation could be associated with skeletal muscle impairment.
PMID: 29350333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The Differences in Serum Quantitative Specific IgE Levels Induced by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis Sensitization in Intermittent and Persistent Allergic Asthma.
Acta Med Indones. 2017 Oct;49(4):299-306
Authors: Susanto AJ, Rengganis I, Rumende CM, Harimurti K
BACKGROUND: house dust mites (HDM) are an important inhalant allergen in allergic asthma. However, molecular diagnostic study of specific IgE to HDM allergens has not been done in Indonesia. In addition, the association of quantitative specific IgE measurement with asthma severity has not been investigatedd. This study aimed to investigate the difference of serum quantitative specific IgE levels induced by Dermatophagoides (D.) pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis sensitization in intermittent and persistent allergic asthma.
METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study on adult allergic asthma patients who were invited for serum specific IgE testing. This study was a part of a larger study within the Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Asthma severity was defined based on Global Initiative on Asthma (GINA) 2015 criteria and were grouped as intermittent or persistent. Quantitative specific IgE testing was done on blood serum using a multiple allergosorbent test (Polycheck Allergy, Biocheck GmbH, Munster, Germany). The HDM allergens tested were D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and Blomia tropicalis. Difference between two groups were analyze using Mann-Whitney test.
RESULTS: a total of 87 subjects were enrolled in this study; 69 (79.3%) were women. Mean patients' age was 40, 2 years. Sixty-three (72.4%) subjects had asthma and allergic rhinitis. Fifty-eight (66.7%) subjects were classified as persistent asthma. The prevalence of sensitization was 62.1% for D. farinae, 51.7% for D. pteronyssinus, and 48.3% for Blomia tropicalis. The median of specific IgE levels were significantly higher in persistent asthma compares to intermittent asthma induced by D. farinae (median 1.30 vs. 0.0 kU/L; p=0.024) and B. tropicalis (median 0.57 vs. 0.0 kU/L; p=0.015) sensitization. Level of Specific IgE D. pteronyssinus was also to be higher in persistent asthma than the level measured in intermittent asthma (0.67 vs. 0.00 kU/L; p=0.066).
CONCLUSION: Sensitization of HDM allergens was shown to be highest for D. farinae 62.1%, followed by D. pteronyssinus 51.7% and Blomia tropicalis 48.3%. Specific IgE level induced by D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis sensitization were significantly higher in patients with persistent asthma compared to intermittent asthma, whereas specific IgE level induced by D. pteronyssinus sensitization was higher in persistent asthma although not statistically significant.
PMID: 29348379 [PubMed - in process]
Can YKL-40 be used as a biomarker and therapeutic target for adult asthma?
Eur Respir J. 2018 Jan;51(1):
Authors: Tong X, Wang D, Liu S, Ma Y, Fan H
PMID: 29348186 [PubMed - in process]
Motivating parents of kids with asthma to quit smoking: the effect of the teachable moment and increasing intervention intensity using a longitudinal randomized trial design.
Addiction. 2016 Sep;111(9):1646-55
Authors: Borrelli B, McQuaid EL, Tooley EM, Busch AM, Hammond SK, Becker B, Dunsiger S
AIMS: We tested two aims: (1) the teachable moment (TM): whether second-hand smoke exposure (SHSe) feedback motivates cessation in parents of children with asthma versus parents of healthy children (HC); and (2) whether greater intervention intensity [enhanced-precaution adoption model (PAM)] produces greater cessation than a previously tested intervention (PAM).
DESIGN AND INTERVENTIONS: Aim 1: two home visits (asthma education or child wellness), and cessation induction using motivational interviewing and SHSe feedback. Aim 2: post-home-visits, parents with asthmatic children were randomized to PAM (n = 171; six asthma education calls) or enhanced-PAM (n = 170; six asthma education/smoking cessation calls + repeat SHSe feedback).
SETTING: Rhode Island, USA.
PARTICIPANTS: Parents of asthmatic (n = 341) or healthy (n = 219) children who did not have to want to quit smoking to enroll.
MEASUREMENTS: Measurements were given at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Abstinence was bioverified. Outcomes were 7-day and 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) and SHSe (primary) and asthma morbidity (secondary).
FINDINGS: Aim 1: the TM was supported: parents of asthmatic children were more than twice as likely to achieve 30-day [odds ratio (OR) = 2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-5.54] and 7-day ppa (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.13-4.51) at 2 months (primary end-point) and have non-detectable levels of SHSe than HCs. Greater treatment intensity yielded stronger TM effects (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.72-7.55). Aim 2: enhanced-PAM was more likely to achieve 30-day ppa at the primary end-point, 4 months (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.09-4.12) and improved asthma outcomes versus PAM.
CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation intervention (Motivational Interviewing plus biomarker feedback) appear to motivate smoking cessation more strongly among parents of asthmatic children than among parents of healthy children. Increased intervention intensity yields greater smoking cessation among parents of asthmatic children and better asthma outcomes.
PMID: 27184343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Impact of psychiatric illness upon asthma patients' health care utilization and illness control. Are all psychiatric comorbidities created equal?
Psychol Health Med. 2016 Oct;21(7):787-99
Authors: Pilipenko N, Karekla M, Georgiou A, Feldman J
The impact of psychiatric illnesses upon asthma patients' functioning is not well understood. This study examined the impact of psychiatric comorbidity upon illness management in asthma patients using empirically-derived psychiatric comorbidity groups. Participants were a clinic sample of Greek-speaking asthma patients (N = 212) assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Somatoform, Depression, Panic Disorder (PD), Other Anxiety Disorder, Eating Disorder (ED) and Alcohol sub-scales. The associations between sub-scales were examined using multiway frequency analysis. The following groups were derived: Somatoform disorder and/or Any Depressive disorder (n = 63), Somatoform disorder and/or Other Anxiety disorder (n = 51), Somatoform disorder and/or Any ED (n = 60), and Any Anxiety group including PD and/or Other Anxiety disorder (n = 24). Across all groups, psychiatric illness was associated with significantly worse asthma control (p < .01). Participants in Any Anxiety group, OR = 4.61, 95% CI [1.90, 11.15], Somatoform and/or Any Depressive disorder, OR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.04, 4.09] and Somatoform and/or Other Anxiety disorder, OR = 2.75, 95% CI [1.35, 5.60] were at higher risk for asthma-related Emergency Room (ER) visits compared to controls. However only Somatoform and/or Any Depressive disorder, OR = 3.67, 95% CI [1.60, 8.72], Somatoform and/or Other Anxiety disorder, OR = 5.50, 95% CI [2.34, 12.74], and Somatoform and/or Any ED, OR = 4.98, 95% CI [2.14, 11.60] group membership were risk factors for asthma-related hospitalizations. Results suggest that while comorbid psychiatric disorders generally negatively impact asthma illness management, different psychiatric comorbidities appear to have disparate effects upon illness management outcomes.
PMID: 26782700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]