The Effect of Melatonin Upon Postacute Withdrawal Among Males in a Residential Treatment Program (M-PAWS): A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.
J Addict Med. 2018 Jan 18;:
Authors: Bondi CD, Kamal KM, Johnson DA, Witt-Enderby PA, Giannetti VJ
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of melatonin (5 mg) compared with placebo as an adjuvant treatment along with current behavioral and pharmacotherapy for 28 days on weekly self-reported severity of anxiety, depression, stress, and sleep complaints, and also how sleep is affecting daily life in males 18 years of age and older in recovery from substance use at a residential program in south-western Pennsylvania.
BACKGROUND: Individuals in recovery experience a variety of symptoms including, but are not limited to, anxiety, depression, sleep difficulties, and stress. In the U.S., melatonin is a readily available nutraceutical that is used to alleviate sleep difficulties. Studies also suggest that melatonin may also have anxiolytic and antidepressive actions alone, as well as in those with co-morbid insomnia. Observation of clinicians treating individuals during and/or post drug cessation indicated that melatonin is commonly provided specifically to alleviate sleep difficulties with little evidence regarding efficacy in this population. The paucity of evidence as well as observation of clinical practices provided the rationale for this randomized clinical trial.
METHODS: A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted. Seventy individuals were enrolled, block-randomized with an allocation ratio of 1:1. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for all primary outcome measures. Primary outcome measures were assessed with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), and Pittsburgh Sleep Symptom Questionnaire-Insomnia (PSSQ-1). Secondary outcome measures were to acquire participant characteristics, determine adherence, and document adverse events.
RESULTS: No statistically significant between-group differences were detected for baseline characteristics. Even though the proportion of individuals reporting an adverse event between groups was not significantly different, the frequency of reported adverse events was greater in the melatonin group. Intention-to-treat analysis for all the measured outcomes revealed no statistically significant between-group differences for same day comparisons.
CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of medication regimens, and also the services provided by the residential treatment site add to the complexity of assessing the efficacy of melatonin on the measured outcomes. Given these limitations, there exists insufficient evidence to suggest that the effect of melatonin and placebo on the outcomes were significantly different.
PMID: 29351138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Circadian Rhythms Disturbances in Alzheimer Disease: Current Concepts, Diagnosis, and Management.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2018 Jan 18;:
Authors: Milán-Tomás Á, Shapiro CM
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the research regarding circadian rhythms in Alzheimer disease (AD). Furthermore, this paper explores the role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of AD and the limitation of trials addressing circadian rhythms disturbances in the AD population. A literature search using Medline with PubMed and Embase was carried out identifying papers focusing on circadian rhythms in AD. Sleep disorders and especially circadian rhythm disturbances are very common in the elderly population but definitely more pronounced in patients with AD. The lack of trials evaluating the management of circadian rhythms disorders in the elderly population and especially in AD should be considered of the utmost importance. Although there is a better understanding about the pathophysiology of AD and its relationship with circadian disorders, further studies in human models need to be conducted.
PMID: 29351091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Respiratory Polysomnographic Findings in Patients Treated Primarily for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2018 Feb;55(2):287-291
Authors: Sobral DS, Faller GJ, Collares MVM
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital craniofacial abnormality. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent but underdiagnosed disease and is frequently associated with craniofacial anomalies. There are few studies describing the sleep breathing pattern of children with CLP. This study sought to characterize the respiratory profile of 23 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, aged 7-12 years, who had undergone cleft lip and nasal repair at age 3-4 months and palatoplasty at 12-15 months, with a particular focus on evaluating the presence of OSAS in children with CLP. Polysomnography was performed and findings were analyzed descriptively. We found a mean and median for apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 1.11/h (SD = 0.78) and 0.9/h, respectively. The mean obstructive apnea index (OAI) was 0.27/h (SD = 0.38) and the median, 0.1/h. Nearly 30% of patients had an AHI above 1.4 events/h. There was no significant oxyhemoglobin desaturation in the study group. In this group, the prevalence of OSAS was higher than in noncleft populations when compared to the normality values adopted. This sample of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate exhibited an increased prevalence of OSAS during the mixed dentition stage. Although the results showed that OSAS was mild, we advise closer observation of these patients. Polysomnography is recommended for the assessment of children with airway abnormalities, to individualize the extent of treatment.
PMID: 29351040 [PubMed - in process]
Three-generation family with novel contiguous gene deletion on chromosome 2p22 associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm syndrome.
Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Jan 19;:
Authors: Quiñones-Pérez B, VanNoy GE, Towne MC, Shen Y, Singh MN, Agrawal PB, Smith SE
Latent transforming growth factor binding proteins (LTBP) are a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins that play an important role in the regulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) activation. Dysregulation of the TGF-ß pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inherited disorders predisposing to thoracic aortic aneurysms syndromes (TAAS) including Marfan syndrome (MFS; FBN1) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS; TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3). While these syndromes have distinct clinical criteria, they share clinical features including aortic root dilation and musculoskeletal findings. LTBP1 is a component of the TGF-ß pathway that binds to fibrillin-1 in the extracellular matrix rendering TGF-ß inactive. We describe a three-generation family case series with a heterozygous ∼5.1 Mb novel contiguous gene deletion of chromosome 2p22.3-p22.2 involving 11 genes, including LTBP1. The deletion has been identified in the proband, father and grandfather, who all have a phenotype consistent with a TAAS. Findings include thoracic aortic dilation, ptosis, malar hypoplasia, high arched palate, retrognathia, pes planus, hindfoot deformity, obstructive sleep apnea, and low truncal tone during childhood with joint laxity that progressed to reduced joint mobility over time. While the three affected individuals did not meet criteria for either MFS or LDS, they shared features of both. Although the deletion includes 11 genes, given the relationship between LTBP1, TGF-ß, and fibrillin-1, LTBP1 stands out as one of the possible candidate genes for the clinical syndrome observed in this family. More studies are necessary to evaluate the potential role of LTBP1 in the pathophysiology of TAAS.
PMID: 29350460 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Sleep in ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: associations with disease activity, gender and mood.
Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Jan 19;:
Authors: Wadeley A, Clarke E, Leverment S, Sengupta R
The study aims were to assess the prevalence of good or poor sleep in a cohort of axial spondyloarthritis patients and to investigate its correlation with a range of objectively and subjectively measured variables in order to develop a model for distinguishing good from poor sleepers. Five hundred ninety-eight patients with ankylosing spondylitis and 61 with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis completed the Jenkins Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Measures of disease activity, mobility, function, mood, fatigue, quality of life, work productivity, night-time pain and general health were gathered. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis or non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis were initially compared. With the exception of waking up tired less often and having lower mobility and functioning, the two groups were similar so were combined for subsequent analysis. Twenty-nine percent of all patients were classified as good sleepers and 19% as poor sleepers. Poor sleepers had higher disease activity and fatigue scores and more night-time back pain than good sleepers. They reported poorer quality of life, general health, mood and work-related measures. A model incorporating mood, gender, fatigue and objective and subjective judgements of disease activity correctly classified 87.3% of good and poor sleepers. Poor sleep was strongly associated with poor mood, female gender, greater fatigue, greater disease activity (specifically, spinal pain and stiffness) and better mobility; however, the direction of causality between poor sleep and markers of active disease was undetermined. This study also highlights the need to standardise the measurement of sleep disturbance in axSpA to facilitate comparisons between patient groups and interventions.
PMID: 29350332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]