Child Poverty, Toxic Stress, and Social Determinants of Health: Screening and Care Coordination.
Online J Issues Nurs. 2018 Sep;23(3):
Authors: Francis L, DePriest K, Wilson M, Gross D
Social determinants of health (SDOH) refer to the social, economic, and physical conditions in which people live that may affect their health. Poverty, which affects nearly 15 million children in the United States, has far-reaching effects on children's physical and mental health. Although it is difficult to change a family's economic circumstances, nurses can play a critical role to address SDOH through screening and effective coordination of care. As nurses, our role is to minimize the effects of SDOH, including poverty, on child health and well-being through our practice, research, and professional education. We present three exemplars of child poverty to demonstrate the impact on child health and well-being and propose a model of care for nurses to assess and address SDOH in the pediatric clinical setting.
PMID: 31427855 [PubMed - in process]
Association between major depressive disorder and multiple disease outcomes: a phenome-wide Mendelian randomisation study in the UK Biobank.
Mol Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 19;:
Authors: Mulugeta A, Zhou A, King C, Hyppönen E
Depression affects all aspects of an individual's life but evidence relating to the causal effects on health is limited. We used information from 337,536 UK Biobank participants and performed hypothesis-free phenome-wide association analyses between major depressive disorder (MDD) genetic risk score (GRS) and 925 disease outcomes. GRS-disease outcome associations passing the multiple-testing corrected significance threshold (P < 1.9 × 10-3) were followed by Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses to test for causality. MDD GRS was associated with 22 distinct diseases in the phenome-wide discovery stage, with the strongest signal observed for MDD diagnosis and related co-morbidities including anxiety and sleep disorders. In inverse-variance weighted MR analyses, MDD was associated with several inflammatory and haemorrhagic gastrointestinal diseases, including oesophagitis (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.48), non-infectious gastroenteritis (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.48), gastrointestinal haemorrhage (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.43) and intestinal E.coli infections (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.74-6.02). Signals were also observed for symptoms/disorders of the urinary system (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.56), asthma (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.44), and painful respiration (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.44). MDD was associated with disorders of lipid metabolism (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.34) and ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.47). Sensitivity analyses excluding pleiotropic variants provided consistent associations. Our study indicates a causal link between MDD and a broad range of diseases, suggesting a notable burden of co-morbidity. Early detection and management of MDD is important, and treatment strategies should be selected to also minimise the risk of related co-morbidities.
PMID: 31427754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
School asthma intervention programme effectively improved children's knowledge and attitudes, and led to decreased hospital admission, length of stay and school absences.
Evid Based Nurs. 2019 Aug 19;:
Authors: Saleh ASE
PMID: 31427502 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Estimated Burden of Fungal Infections in Namibia.
J Fungi (Basel). 2019 Aug 16;5(3):
Authors: Dunaiski CM, Denning DW
Namibia is a sub-Saharan country with one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Although care and support services are available that cater for opportunistic infections related to HIV, the main focus is narrow and predominantly aimed at tuberculosis. We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Namibia, currently unknown, based on the size of the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate the frequencies of fungal infections, using the previously described methodology. The population of Namibia in 2011 was estimated at 2,459,000 and 37% were children. Among approximately 516,390 adult women, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes /year) is estimated to occur in 37,390 (3003/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimated 125 cases of candidemia, and 19 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Among survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Namibia 2017, 112 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 354 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 453 CPA patients in all. Asthma affects 11.2% of adults, 178,483 people, and so allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated in approximately 179/100,000 and 237/100,000 people, respectively. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is estimated to affect 15 patients following leukaemia therapy, and an estimated 0.13% patients admitted to hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (259) and 4% of HIV-related deaths (108) - a total of 383 people. The total HIV-infected population is estimated at 200,000, with 32,371 not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among HIV-infected patients, 543 cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 836 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Tinea capitis infections were estimated at 53,784 cases, and mucormycosis at five cases. Data were missing for fungal keratitis and skin neglected fungal tropical diseases such as mycetoma. The present study indicates that approximately 5% of the Namibian population is affected by fungal infections. This study is not an epidemiological study-it illustrates estimates based on assumptions derived from similar studies. The estimates are incomplete and need further epidemiological and diagnostic studies to corroborate, amend them, and improve the diagnosis and management of these diseases.
PMID: 31426392 [PubMed]