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Protective Effects of Maternal Education against Low Birth Weight Deliveries: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
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Protective Effects of Maternal Education against Low Birth Weight Deliveries: Blacks' Diminished Returns.

Res Health Sci. 2020;5(4):1-17

Authors: Assari S

Abstract
Background: Racial and economic disparities in low birth weight (LBW) deliveries is among the most well-established differences between Blacks and Whites. As LBW is an established risk factor for chronic diseases such as asthma and diabetes, it is particularly important to understand drivers of racial and economic disparities in LBW deliveries in urban areas.
Aims: Built on the Minorities' Diminished Returns framework, which argues that educational attainment generates fewer positive health outcomes for Black than White Americans, we conducted this study with three aims: 1) to test the association between mothers' educational attainment and LBW of babies born in urban areas, 2) to compare Blacks and Whites for the effect of mothers' educational attainment on LBW, and 3) to test whether LBW is predictive of future chronic diseases 15 years later.
Methods: Data came from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being / included a random sample of births in cities larger than 200,000 population. For the aims 1 and 2, we analyzed data of 2,922 births to Black (n = 2,146) or White (n = 776) mothers. For aim 3, we analyzed data of a subsample of 1,604 Black or White newborns who were followed to age 15. The presence or absence of chronic diseases was determined at age 15. Logistic regression was used for data analysis.
Results: Maternal educational attainment was inversely associated with LBW overall. We, however, found a significant interaction between maternal educational attainment and race, suggesting that the inverse association between maternal education and LBW is weaker for Black than White babies. At the same time, LBW increased the odds of chronic disease 15 years later.
Conclusions: Diminished returns of maternal educational attainment contribute to racial disparities in LBW, which in turn contributes to future racial inequalities in chronic diseases in urban settings. That is, smaller protective effects of maternal education on reducing LBW for Black than White children contribute to the high prevalence of chronic diseases among adolescents in urban settings. Health disparities are not just due to racial differences in socioeconomic status but also diminishing returns of socioeconomic status indicators such as education for racial and ethnic minorities. Research should study contextual factors that reduce Blacks' ability to translate their human capital to health outcomes in urban settings.

PMID: 33117952 [PubMed]



Chronic Ulcers and Malnutrition in an African Patient.
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Chronic Ulcers and Malnutrition in an African Patient.

Pediatrics. 2020 Oct 28;:

Authors: Singer TG, Bray MA, Chan A, Ikeda S, Walters B, Fuller MY, Falco C

Abstract
An 11-year-old girl with a congenitally malformed left hand, sickle cell trait, asthma, and history of appendicitis was transferred from Zambia for evaluation and treatment of widespread suppurative and ulcerative skin lesions that typically appeared after trauma to her skin. The ulcers first presented 3 years earlier but had markedly worsened in the 9 months before transfer, spreading circumferentially on her extremities and abdomen at the site of an appendectomy. They were painful and did not resolve with multiple courses of intravenous antibiotics and close management by a pediatric infectious disease specialist working for a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in her home country. Per NGO records, she had previously been  average weight-for-age. On presentation after international transfer, she was severely malnourished, with lesions covering ∼35% of her body. In initial workup, leukocytosis of 21 × 103 cells per μL (79% neutrophils), hemoglobin of 6.1 g/dL, and mean corpuscular volume of 66 fL were found. Iron studies revealed an iron level of 18 μg/dL, ferritin level of 55 ng/mL, total iron binding capacity of 222 μg/dL, and transferrin saturation of 8%. Inflammatory markers were elevated, C-reactive protein was 20.1 mg/dL, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 131 mm/h. A chest computed tomography scan revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules, the largest in her left upper lobe measuring 2.4 × 2.0 × 1.9 cm. Our panel of experts reviews the evaluation and treatment of this patient with extensive suppurative and ulcerative skin lesions and the factors considered in offering charity care to international patients.

PMID: 33115794 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



Dynamics of human monocytes and airway macrophages during healthy aging and after transplant.
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Dynamics of human monocytes and airway macrophages during healthy aging and after transplant.

J Exp Med. 2020 03 02;217(3):

Authors: Byrne AJ, Powell JE, O'Sullivan BJ, Ogger PP, Hoffland A, Cook J, Bonner KL, Hewitt RJ, Wolf S, Ghai P, Walker SA, Lukowski SW, Molyneaux PL, Saglani S, Chambers DC, Maher TM, Lloyd CM

Abstract
The ontogeny of airway macrophages (AMs) in human lung and their contribution to disease are poorly mapped out. In mice, aging is associated with an increasing proportion of peripherally, as opposed to perinatally derived AMs. We sought to understand AM ontogeny in human lung during healthy aging and after transplant. We characterized monocyte/macrophage populations from the peripheral blood and airways of healthy volunteers across infancy/childhood (2-12 yr), maturity (20-50 yr), and older adulthood (>50 yr). Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was performed on airway inflammatory cells isolated from sex-mismatched lung transplant recipients. During healthy aging, the proportions of blood bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) classical monocytes peak in adulthood and decline in older adults. scRNA-seq of BAL cells from lung transplant recipients indicates that after transplant, the majority of AMs are recipient derived. These data show that during aging, the peripheral monocyte phenotype is consistent with that found in the airways and, furthermore, that the majority of human AMs after transplant are derived from circulating monocytes.

PMID: 31917836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms within HLA region and disease relapse for patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms within HLA region and disease relapse for patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Sci Rep. 2019 09 24;9(1):13731

Authors: Chen DP, Chang SW, Wang PN, Hus FP, Tseng CP

Abstract
Disease relapse occurs in patients with leukemia even hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors. As revealed previously by Petersdorf et al., there are nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the HLA region that potentially modulate the efficacy of HSCT. In this study, we investigated whether or not the genomic variants 500 base pairs flanking the nine transplantation-related SNPs were related to the risk of post-HSCT relapse for patients with leukemia (n = 141). The genomic DNAs collected from 85 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 56 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and their respective HLA-matched donors were subject to SNPs analysis, conferred by the mode of mismatch between donor-recipient pair or by recipient or donor genotype analysis. Seven SNPs were revealed to associate with the risk of relapse post-HSCT. For patients with AML, the increased risk of post-HSCT relapse was associated with the donor SNP of rs111394117 in the intron of NOTCH4 gene, and the recipient SNPs of rs213210 in the ring finger protein 1 (RING1) gene promoter, and rs17220087 and rs17213693 in the intron of HLA-DOB gene. For patients with ALL, the increased risk of post-HSCT relapse was associated with the donor SNP of rs213210 in the RING1 gene promoter, and the recipient SNPs of rs79327197 in the HLA-DOA gene promoter, rs2009658 in the telomeric end of lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) gene, rs17220087 and rs17213693 in the intron of HLA-DOB gene, and rs2070120 in the 3'-UTR of HLA-DOB gene. This study sheds new insight into selecting better candidate donors for performing HSCT in patients with AML and ALL.

PMID: 31551439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Early life determinants induce sustainable changes in the gut microbiome of six-year-old children.
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Early life determinants induce sustainable changes in the gut microbiome of six-year-old children.

Sci Rep. 2019 09 03;9(1):12675

Authors: Gschwendtner S, Kang H, Thiering E, Kublik S, Fösel B, Schulz H, Krauss-Etschmann S, Heinrich J, Schöler A, Schloter M, Standl M

Abstract
While the association between early life determinants and the development of the gut microbiome composition in infancy has been widely investigated, a potential persistent influence of early life determinants on the gut microbial community after its stabilization at later childhood remains largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify the association between several early life determinants and the gut microbiome composition in six-year-old children from the LISA birth cohort. A total number of 166 fecal samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based barcoding to assess bacterial diversity pattern. The bacterial profiles were investigated for their association with maternal smoking during pregnancy, mode of delivery, breastfeeding, antibiotic treatment between one and two years of age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES). While alpha and beta diversity of the infants' gut microbiome remained unaffected, amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) annotated to Firmicutes and Actinobacteria responded to early life determinants, mostly to feeding practice and antibiotics use. ASVs associated to Bacteriodetes remained unaffected. Our findings indicate that early life determinants could have a long-term sustainable effect on the gut microflora of six-year-old children, however, associations with early life determinates are weaker than reported for infants.

PMID: 31481742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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