The experience of intolerance of uncertainty for young people with a restrictive eating disorder: a pilot study.
Eat Weight Disord. 2019 Feb 16;:
Authors: Konstantellou A, Hale L, Sternheim L, Simic M, Eisler I
PURPOSE: Research is consistently reporting elevated levels of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in individuals with an eating disorder (ED). Less is known about the phenomenology of uncertainty for this clinical group. The present study aims to advance our understanding of the relationship between IU and restrictive EDs by providing insight into young people's subjective experiences of uncertainty.
METHODS: Thirteen young people with a restrictive ED were recruited from multi-family therapy groups run within the Maudsley Centre for Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Three focus groups were conducted asking young people to discuss their views, experiences and coping strategies when faced with uncertainty.
RESULTS: Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis which yielded five superordinate themes: (1) young people perceived uncertainty as something negative; (2) high levels of anxiety and stress were identified as primary responses to uncertainty; (3) ED behaviours were given a functional role in reducing uncertainty; (4) need to control various aspects of young peoples' lives was of high importance; (5) young people discussed how they struggled to find ways to cope with uncertainty and often used behaviours associated with the eating disorder psychopathology as coping strategies.
CONCLUSION: Young people's experiences of what uncertainty is like for them revealed a dynamic interplay between ED symptoms and fear of uncertainty. Findings support IU as a relevant concept for young people suffering from a restrictive ED and indicate that further exploration of IU from both theoretical and clinical perspectives could be fruitful.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V.
PMID: 30778868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Emotion sensitivity across the lifespan: Mapping clinical risk periods to sensitivity to facial emotion intensity.
J Exp Psychol Gen. 2019 Feb 18;:
Authors: Rutter LA, Dodell-Feder D, Vahia IV, Forester BP, Ressler KJ, Wilmer JB, Germine L
Face emotion perception is important for social functioning and mental health. In addition to recognizing categories of face emotion, accurate emotion perception relies on the ability to detect subtle differences in emotion intensity. The primary aim of this study was to examine participants' ability to discriminate the intensity of facial emotions (emotion sensitivity: ES) in three psychometrically matched ES tasks (fear, anger, or happiness), to identify developmental changes in sensitivity to face emotion intensity across the lifespan. We predicted that increased age would be associated with lower anger and fear ES, with minimal differences in happiness ES. Participants were 9,546 responders to a Web-based ES study (age range = 10 to 85 years old). Results of segmented linear regression confirmed our hypotheses and revealed differential patterns of ES based on age, sex, and emotion category. Females showed enhanced sensitivity to anger and fear relative to males, but similar sensitivity to happiness. While sensitivity to all emotions increased during adolescence and early adulthood, sensitivity to anger showed the largest increase, potentially related to the importance of anger perception during adolescent development. We also observed age-related decreases in both anger and fear sensitivity in older adults, with little to no change in happiness sensitivity. Unlike previous studies, the effect observed here could not be explained by task-related confounds (e.g., ceiling effects for happiness recognition), lending strong support to observed differences in ES for happiness, anger, and fear across age. Implications for everyday functioning and the development of psychopathology across the lifespan are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 30777778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Social Cost Bias, Probability Bias, and Self-Efficacy as Correlates of Behavioral Action in Social Anxiety.
Behav Modif. 2018 03;42(2):175-195
Authors: Lee CS, Hayes-Skelton SA
The present study investigated the role of social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy as correlates of behavioral action in a nonclinical sample of 197 individuals, using a series of vignettes and self-report measures. The findings indicated that, as hypothesized, social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy were associated with social anxiety. While social anxiety was associated with behavioral action, the three cognitive factors were associated with behavioral action above and beyond the contribution of social anxiety. However, contrary to the hypothesis, self-efficacy was the only cognitive factor directly associated with behavioral action when all variables were in the model. This information has implications for potential methods and target mechanisms for increasing client engagement with exposures and behavioral experiments in treatments for social anxiety.
PMID: 28745062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]