Emerging Domain-Based Treatments for Pediatric Anxiety Disorders.
Biol Psychiatry. 2020 Nov 20;:
Authors: Lazarov A, Bar-Haim Y
Domain-specific cognitive training treatments for pediatric anxiety disorders rely on accurate and reliable identification of specific underlying deficits and biases in neurocognitive functions. Once identified, such biases can serve as specific targets for therapeutic intervention. Clinical translations typically reflect mechanized training protocols designed to rectify the identified biases. Here, we review and synthesize research on key neurocognitive processes that emerge as potential targets for specialized cognitive training interventions in pediatric anxiety disorders in the domains of attention, interpretation, error monitoring, working memory, and fear learning. For each domain, we describe the current status of target establishment (i.e., an association between pediatric anxiety and a specific neurocognitive process), and then review extant translational efforts regarding these targets and the evidence supporting their clinical utility in youths. We then localize each of the domains within the path leading to efficacious, evidence-supported treatments for pediatric anxiety, providing a roadmap for future research. The review indicates that specific cognitive targets in pediatric anxiety have been established in all the reviewed domains except for fear learning, where a clear target is yet to be elucidated. In contrast, evidence for clinical efficacy emerged only in the threat-related attention domain, with some preliminary findings in the domains of interpretation and working memory. The path to clinical translation in the domain of error monitoring is yet unclear. Implications and potential avenues for future research and translation are discussed.
PMID: 33451677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Pregnant women's well-being and worry during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2021 Jan 15;21(1):59
Authors: Mortazavi F, Mehrabadi M, KiaeeTabar R
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused some worries among pregnant women. Worries during pregnancy can affect women's well-being. We investigated worry and well-being and associated factors among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.
METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 484 pregnant women using an online questionnaire. Sampling was performed in a period between May 5 and Aug 5, 2020. Inclusion criteria were having a single healthy fetus and having no significant psychological disorder. We collected the data using the Persian versions of the World Health Organization's Well-Being Index (WHO-5 Well-Being Index) and the Cambridge Worry Scale. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of women's worry and well-being.
RESULTS: The mean total scores of the WHO-5 Well-Being Index and the percentage of WHO-5 score < 50 were 64.9 ± 29.0 and 24.4%, respectively. Predictors of women's worry are the increased level of fear of COVID-19 (OR = 6.40, p < 0.001), a low family income (OR = 3.41, p < 0.001), employment status (OR = 1.86, p = 0.019), nulliparity (OR = 1.68, p = 0.024), having a COVID-19 infected person among relatives (OR = 2.45, p = 0.036), having a history of abortion (OR = 1.86, p = 0.012), having participated in the study after the first wave of COVID-19 outbreak (OR = 2.328, p = 0.003), and women's age < 30 year (OR = 2.11, p = 0.002). Predictors of low level of well-being in pregnant women are worry about their own health and relationships (OR = 1.789, p = .017), worry about fetus health (OR = 1.946, p = 0.009), and having at least one infected person with COVID-19 among relatives (OR = 2.135, p = 0.036).
CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of women experiencing a low well-being state was relatively high. This result is worthy of attention by health care providers and policy makers. Providing care and support to pregnant women should have high priority during the COVID-19 pandemic.
PMID: 33451292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]