The relationship between subjective oral health and dental fear in Korean adolescents.
J Dent Anesth Pain Med. 2017 Dec;17(4):289-295
Authors: Won YS, Shim YS, An SY
Background: This study is aimed to evaluate the level of fear and to reduce the overall fear, thereby enabling patients to receive treatment via timely visits.
Methods: In a survey conducted by 460 South Korean middle school students, we used 453 data that faithfully responded to the survey. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate the factors influencing subjective oral health and dental fear. The significance level used for statistical significance was α = 0.05.
Results: The level of fear was higher for upper grade, female students. The factors affecting dental fear were higher for gingival bleeding and dental pain. Regarding factors for dental fear affecting subjective oral health, lower fear of puncture needle and tooth removal tool resulted in higher subjective oral health.
Conclusion: The study found that adolescents had higher fear of dental care when they had gingival bleeding and tooth pain. Gingival bleeding is a symptom of early gingival disease and dental pain is likely due to advanced dental caries. These results suggested that it is necessary to have a program to reduce dental fear and anxiety as well as a program to prevent dental diseases through regular periodic screening and education.
PMID: 29349351 [PubMed]
Environmental radiation level, radiation anxiety, and psychological distress of non-evacuee residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Multilevel analyses.
SSM Popul Health. 2017 Dec;3:740-748
Authors: Fukasawa M, Kawakami N, Umeda M, Miyamoto K, Akiyama T, Horikoshi N, Yasumura S, Yabe H, Bromet EJ
The present study aimed to clarify the associations among radiation exposure or psychological exposure to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (i.e., fear/anxiety immediately after the accident), current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress among non-evacuee community residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of non-evacuee community residents from 49 municipalities of Fukushima prefecture from February to April 2016, and data from 1684 respondents (34.4%) were analyzed. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident were ascertained from survey meter data, while environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were ascertained from monitoring post data. In the questionnaire, immediate fear/anxiety after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress were measured using a single-item question, a 7-item scale, and K6, respectively. Multilevel linear or logistic regression models were applied to analyze the determinants of radiation anxiety and psychological distress. The findings showed that environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were more strongly associated with radiation anxiety than radiation levels immediately after the accident. Disaster-related experiences, such as direct damage, disaster-related family stress, and fear/anxiety after the accident, and demographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, being married, low socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with radiation anxiety. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident or survey were not significantly associated with psychological distress. Radiation anxiety largely mediated the association between fear/anxiety after the accident and psychological distress. In addition to environmental radiation levels, respondents' radiation anxiety was affected by multiple factors, such as disaster-related experiences and demographic characteristics. Radiation levels were not associated with psychological distress in non-evacuee community residents. Rather, fear/anxiety after the nuclear power plant accident may be a determinant of psychological distress, mediated by radiation anxiety.
PMID: 29349260 [PubMed]
The effect of foreign language in fear acquisition.
Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 18;8(1):1157
Authors: García-Palacios A, Costa A, Castilla D, Del Río E, Casaponsa A, Duñabeitia JA
Emotions are at the core of human nature. There is evidence that emotional reactivity in foreign languages compared to native languages is reduced. We explore whether this emotional distance could modulate fear conditioning, an essential mechanism for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders. A group of participants was verbally informed (either in a foreign or in a native language) that two different stimuli could be either cueing the potential presence of a threat stimulus or its absence. We registered pupil size and electrodermal activity and calculated the difference in psychophysiological responses to conditioned and to unconditioned stimuli. Our findings provided evidence that verbal conditioning processes are affected by language context in this paradigm. We report the first experimental evidence regarding how the use of a foreign language may reduce fear conditioning. This observation opens the avenue to the potential use of a foreign language in clinical contexts.
PMID: 29348683 [PubMed - in process]
Reducing State Anxiety Using Working Memory Maintenance.
J Vis Exp. 2017 Jul 19;(125):
Authors: Balderston NL, Hsiung A, Liu J, Ernst M, Grillon C
The purpose of this protocol is to explain how to examine the relationship between working memory processes and anxiety by combining the Sternberg Working Memory (WM) and the threat of shock paradigms. In the Sternberg WM paradigm, subjects are required to maintain a series of letters in the WM for a brief interval and respond by identifying whether the position of a given letter in the series matches a numerical prompt. In the threat of shock paradigm, subjects are exposed to alternating blocks where they are either at risk of receiving unpredictable presentations of a mild electric shock or are safe from the shock. Anxiety is probed throughout the safe and threat blocks using the acoustic startle reflex, which is potentiated under threat (Anxiety-Potentiated Startle (APS)). By conducting the Sternberg WM paradigm during the threat of shock and probing the startle response during either the WM maintenance interval or the intertrial interval, it is possible to determine the effect of WM maintenance on APS.
PMID: 28745646 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]